Since the birth of Louise Brown, world's first 'Test Tube Baby' on 26th July 1978, Assisted Reproductive Technology has become frontier of infertility management. Millions of babies are already born the world over by various ART procedures. The IVF-ET procedure involves the extraction of oocytes, their fertilization in the laboratory or test Tube Baby center in Amritsar and transfer of embryos at 6 to 8 celled stages into the uterus of the woman.
- Blocked fallopian tubes
- Absence of tubes due to surgery
- Chronically infected tubes
- Endometriosisi.e. the presence of endometrium (lining of the womb) outside the uterus
- 4. Poor responder to ovulation induction drugs.
- 5.Failed IUI for 4-5 repeated cycles.
- 6. Unexplained infertility.
- 7. Sperm antibodies in the wife's and/or husband's
- 8. Donated Oocyte
- Pre- mature ovarian failure.
- If a woman is unable to bear pregnancy on medical grounds, the embryos of the desirous couple (obtained through IVF) can be placed in some other woman's uterus. This procedure is known as Surrogacy.
Procedure It is a multistep procedure and every step is closely monitored by ultrasound.
i) Down Regulation The natural production of egg in the patient’s ovary is checked by suppressing the release of hormones with drugs or nasal spray. This establishes the baseline from where to start the ovarian stimulation.
ii) Hyperstimulation of Ovary The ovaries are hyper stimulated to produce 10-15 mature oocytes by subjecting the patient to one of the many protocols available for induction of super ovulation
- iv) Semen Preparation
- v) Extraction of Eggs
- vi) Fertilization of Eggs
- The ovaries do not respond to ovulation stimulating drugs.
- Failure of sperm to fertilize the oocyte.
- Failure of embryo to divide further.
- The most serious reason for non-success of the procedure is the failure of the embryo to implant.
- The stimulated cycle is very carefully monitored. However, in any cycle there is a small risk of hyper stimulation which may result in enlargement of the ovaries (ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome-OHSS). Conservative treatment usually results in total resolution of the cysts.
- Chance of multiple pregnancies is 30%. One should be prepared to accept twins and triplets. However, triplets are rare. There can be a need to reduce the number of viable foetuses in order to ensure the survival of at the most two foetuses.