THIRD PARTY REPRODUCTION
The introduction of Assisted Reproduction Technology(ART) has brought
with it procedures that allow couples who cannot conceive using their own gametes,
the alternatives of achieving pregnancy through the use of donated oocytes, donated
sperm, or even donated embryos. The donation of oocytes by reproductive -age women
or embryos to perimenopausal or menopausal women have made childbearing possible
without the limitation of age. Donor insemination has long been an option for
addressing the male factor infertility or other related problems.
Insemination with Donor Semen
Donor insemination involves the
placing of a donor's semen into the interior of the vagina of desirous woman.
The procedure enables a couple to achieve pregnancy even though the husband is
not the biological father. Donor insemination is not proceeded very soon after
the husband has been confronted with his infertility. Adjustment of both partners
takes time and both donor insemination and adoption are discussed extensively
at our centre leaving the choice entirely to the couple. It is necessary for the
infertility centre to get the informed consent of both the partners after they
are counselled about the possible psychological conflict they may face later in
their life with the knowledge that one of them is not the biological parent of
The conditions of anonymity and screening of the donor is
met and only frozen sperm samples that have passed appropriate quarantining for
infectious diseases such as HIV, hepatitis B and C are used. Every effort is made
to match phenolytic characteristic of the recipient and the donor such as race,
hair, eye colour, height and body built up etc.
- Husband has non- obstructive azoospermia.
Husband has a hereditary genetic defect.
- The couple has Rh incompatibility.
The woman is iso-immunized and has lost previous pregnancies and intrauterine
transfusion is not possible.
- Husband has severe oligozoospermia and the
couple does not wish to undergo any of the sophisticated ART procedure such as
ICSI due to cost factor or otherwise.
Oocyte donation is a procedure in which the donor
oocytes are fertilized with husband's semen of the desirous couple and the resultant
embryos are transferred to the infertile female partner.
be healthy woman in the age group of 18-35 yrs. She should be screened for HIV,
hepatitis B and C. Oocytes may be obtained for donation from other women participating
in IVF program, or those undergoing elective sterilization or surgery.
for Oocyte donation
- Gonadal Dysgenesis.
- Iatrogenic (due to ovarian surgery or radiation, or
chemical castration) ovarian failure.
- Women who have resistant ovary
syndrome, or who are poor responders to ovulation induction.
- Women who
are carriers of recessive autosomal disorders.
- Women who have attained
Embryo donation can be carried out in menopausal women with no surviving
child but desiring to have a child. It is wonderful that the endometrium of menopausal
woman has the ability to respond to sex hormones and provide a receptive environment
for the implantation of an embryo. The indications of embryo donation are the
same as that of oocyte donations.
For women with congenital absence of the uterus and vagina or serious medical
condition that makes it unadvisable for her to conceive, surrogate pregnancy is
a reasonable option. Here, the genetic off-spring can be achieved by collection
of oocytes from the genetic mother, fertilization by genetic father through IVF
and placement of embryo in somebody else's uterus who is hired for the development
of foetus. Receiving women with donated oocytes are known to yield optimal pregnancy
In India there
are guidelines ready to be transformed into legislation in the very near future
to practice ART and to monitor third party reproduction to avoid possible misuse
of technology. For further information see ICMR Guideline Introduction, Brief
History of ART and Requirements of ART Clinics.